INVITATION TO BID FOR CONSULTANCY - TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR STUDY ON FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING OUTCOMES IN PRIMARY EDUCATION IN SOMALIA/SOMALILAND

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Employer: Save the Children
Job Title: INVITATION TO BID FOR CONSULTANCY - TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR STUDY ON FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING OUTCOMES IN PRIMARY EDUCATION IN SOMALIA/SOMALILAND Featured job
Job Type: Full-Time
Location: Hargeisa; Somaliland
Category: CONSULTANCY
Description:

Save the Children International (SCI) Somalia program hereby invites interested consultants to bid for the consultancy assignment detailed below

1

Title of Consultancy

TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR STUDY ON FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING OUTCOMES IN PRIMARY EDUCATION IN SOMALIA/SOMALILAND

DECEMBER 2020 – JANUARY 2021

2

SCI Contracting Office

Save the Children

Hargeisa Office

3

Period of Consultancy

Atmost 50 days starting from contracting date.

4

Consultant type required

Firm

5

Responsibility for Logistics arrangements and Costs

The consultant will be responsible for organizing logistical issues related to this exercise

 

6

Taxation Provisions

Consultant shall be responsible for all Taxes arising from the consultancy in line with the Somaliland Tax regulations applicable at the SCI Hargeisa Office

7

Travel requirements

Consultant will manage any travel costs

8

Security requirements

Consultant will comply with standard Save the Children Security procedures, including the completion of SCI online security training prior to travel to Somaliland

9

Qualification and Experience

          Consultant preferred from institutional/ team of experts with background in education and social science.

          At least a Master’s Degree in Education or other related Social Sciences. A PhD would be preferred.

          At least 5 years’ experience of research on Education especially children’s learning outcomes. SCI-Somalia is interested to verify related assignments conducted in the past 2 years.

          Demonstrable experience in working in conflict prone countries such as Somalia.

          Demonstrate advanced capacity and proven experience in literature review and quantitative and qualitative data management and analysis

          The consultant or co-consultant is expected to speak in Somali. And has no access limitations in moving from region to another.

          The consultant is expected to meet the terms and work conditions stipulated in SCI contract including Save the Children child safeguarding policy.

10

Evaluation Criteria

Compliance with Consultancy requirement:

·         Provision of required information & documents; responsiveness to ToR's

Consultant’s Experience

·         Qualifications and general experience of the firm/team

·         Proven specific experience in performing similar assignments especially in Somalia with reputable organizations.

Adequacy of Work Plan & Methodology

·         Methodology and techniques to be applied well stipulated

·         Clear description of tasks in their Scope of Work

Bidder's Price Quotation

11

Application Procedure

Interested consultants should submit their applications via email to [somaliland.procurement@savethechildren.org ].

The applications should be submitted in PDF format as one document comprising Technical and Financial sections as detailed below.

a)     Technical proposal – including but not limited to :

·         Consultants understanding of the assignment and context

·         Approach to the assignment

·         Methodology

·         Tools

·         Deliverables

·         Workplan

·         Key staff biodata (Resume)

 

b)    Financial proposal – providing a breakdown of all charges related to the assignment.

c)    CV(s) of consultant(s) with minimum of 3 traceable and recent refrences and Company’s Profile & Lead consultant(s) CV(s) (for firms Only).

d)    Sample report of the same activity previously done.

Applicants should also indicate the date they are available to start working on the consultancy

All applications MUST be submitted on or before the closing date below to be considered for the assignment.

Only shortlisted Candidates will be contacted.

12

Closing date for Applications

Interested candidates shall submit their applications through somaliland.procurement@savethechildren.org  no latter than 14th December, 2020 at 3:30PM (Hargeisa Time)

13

Terms of Reference (ToR)

Complete ToR with details appended below attached herewith as    Annex 1.

  • Purpose of the consultancy,
  • Introduction of the project,
  • Background of the consultancy,
  • Objectives of the consultancy,
  • Proposed methodology and approach,
  • Scope of work,
  • Key deliverables / outputs
  • Activity timelines

 

ANNEX 1 : Consultancy Terms of Reference

TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR STUDY ON FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING OUTCOMES IN PRIMARY EDUCATION IN SOMALIA/SOMALILAND

1.    Background

Somalia has made significant progress on basic education, access indicators, for instance, gross enrolment rate increased from 23% in 2006 to 58% in 2016 and a slight dip to 41% during the 2017 drought situation. Other than gross enrolment rate increase, gender gap in both primary and secondary school has steadily narrowed down since 2006. Whereas there was marked improvement in access resulting from increased enrolment of learners, education quality indicators have not been progressed along with the access indicators.  It is estimated that 15% to 20% of fourth graders in the country are unable to recognize or read single words (African Educational Trust, 2012). This demonstrates the lack of sufficient foundational literacy, which jeopardizes ability of enrolled students to achieve higher levels of learning and education. While some children eventually catch-up with appropriate grade level literacy and numeracy, a number of children end up completing primary education cycle while lacking essential basic literacy (Protopapas, Sideridis, Mouzaki, & Simos, 2011). When children attend school and are not able to gain fundamental learning outcomes, it is huge waste of human and financial resources. Insufficient learning outcomes bulges already high in illiteracy rates complicating empowerment efforts and efforts to contribute to peaceful country (UNDP, 2012).

The education sector in the country is faced with complex and multidimensional challenges ranging from non-coherent curriculum, reliance on untrained teachers, shortage of teachers, poor school infrastructure and weak governance and regulation in the education sector (Hussein, 2015). Previous efforts focused on reviving education system as a whole by increasing access to education and school dropout (Ministry of Human Development and Public Services & UNICEF, 2013). As the country moves towards more stability, there is need to assure inclusive and equitable quality education for all children in order to realize Goal 4 of Sustainable Development Goals. One of the major goals Save the Children International (SCI) seeks to achieve is to ensure all children have achieved the required literacy and numeracy competencies by the time they leave primary school. To attain this goal, SCI has to rely on previous studies to design interventions. However, in conflict and humanitarian settings globally, education quality has received insufficient attention, policy-makers and programmatic interventions are focused on restoring access to education (Ratcliffe, Perry, Boak, Smith, & Todd, 2009; Winthrop & Matsui, 2013; Burde, Guven, Kelcey, Lahmann, & Al-Abbadi, 2015).

In Somalia, there is no systematic research, with only limited data about learning achievements across Somalia. Available learning achievement assessments are either project-based or limited to a few regions. Conflict not only limits regular access to schools, but also exposes learners and teachers to abuse, violence and discrimination with social and psychological effects hence adversely impacting quality and learning outcomes (Cervantes-Duarte & Fernández-Cano, 2016). These effects are not only limited to children alone, it also affects caregivers and teachers, resulting into increased aggression against children and reduced adult involvement in children’s education activities. Elsewhere, parental interventions to help them contribute to their children’s at-home learning show larger significant effect size on students’ literacy attainment among disadvantaged households (Terlitsky & Wilkins, 2015; Dowd & Pisani, 2013).

In non-conflict settings, four proximate determinants of learning outcomes have been identified as learner preparation, teacher skills and motivation, the availability of relevant resources, and the school management and governance. The current Somalia education sector analyses reveal the following: -

·           Early Childhood Education is neglected across the education sector in Somalia, thus children join primary school while ill equipped to learn.

·           In terms of teacher skills, only about 41% of primary school teachers are qualified and certified, and disproportionately located in urban areas (UNICEF, 2018), even among trained teachers rote teaching is widespread, and there is also a general lack of female teachers in teaching profession; few who join in teaching force do not stay longer in the profession.

·           School governance and supervision remain weak with unclear standards for assessing teacher performance and providing on-the-job support for teachers.

·           Education inputs and supplies widely vary by geographical localities, but lowest in rural areas with rural schools lacking most basic school supplies.

·           In consideration of traditional gender norms and practices, girls are expected to perform particular sorts of daily tasks that are likely to interfere with their ability to attend school on a strict schedule or complete required schoolwork.

·           Furthermore, insecurity worsens girl child’s regular school attendance as families are reluctant to regularly send their children to school for fear of gender-based violence for their female children.

·           Children who grow up in a community ravaged by food insecurity and hunger often suffer from cognitive and developmental delays that would prove unique challenges to their teaching and learning.

·           Another defining socio-economic indicator is the quality of home learning environment, due to low literacy levels among adult caregivers, children in the country are unable to benefit from advantages of language-stimulating environment (Senechal, 2006; Weigel, Martin, & Bennett, 2006; Tamis-LeMonda, Luo, McFadden, Bandel, & Vallotton, 2017).

·           As part of the demand factors, the limited economic outlook in the country, parents might also value less education thus limiting investment in their children’s education as well as children’s own investment in their education in terms of personal effort.

 

With the foregoing, it is clear that contextual factors affecting student learning occur at four different levels: Student/family, Classroom, School and Country/systems.

These factors are intricately linked and operate in the above levels as input, process and outcome. This calls for a wider view of learning outcomes at these levels as well as through the dynamic model view. The proposed study therefore seeks to identify the most important factors and practices that could be hindering children from achieving age and grade appropriate literacy levels in primary schools in Somalia. This will help to inform interventions design among education actors across the country. In this line, SCI is seeking a consultant to undertake a formative research on literacy levels across Somalia, and associated factors that affect realization of the learning outcomes (or interventions) with the objective of identifying and quantifying the best possible set(s) of interventions.

2.    Research Questions and Objectives

This study seeks to answer the question: What are the factors that influence learning outcomes (literacy and numeracy) for boys and girls in Somalia/Somaliland?

Specifically, the study should explain:

a.     What is the important student/family, classroom, school, community, and systems level factors influencing/affecting learning outcomes for children in Somalia?

b.     What have so far been done by way of interventions to address the factors identified in a) above in Somalia and other similar context?

c.     What evidence exist for the interventions in b) above to show their effectiveness in addressing learning outcomes in Somalia and other similar context?

d.     What needs to be done further to improve the learning outcomes for the children in Somalia?

 

Objective

·         To identify factors affecting learning outcomes in primary schools in Somalia and Somaliland.

·         To assess the interventions that address factors affecting learning outcomes in primary schools in Somalia/Somaliland

·         To generate/review evidence that will guide policy makers, communities, parents, INGOs among other stakeholders to effectively improve educational outcomes.

 

3.    Methodology

This study will be exploratory in nature, first to establish student/family, classroom, school, community, and systems factors influencing learning outcomes for children in Somalia. Secondly, the study will explore interventions and their effectiveness in addressing learning outcomes in Somalia and other similar context. The study will be guided by two frameworks, the ‘Input-Process-Outcome model’ (Purves, 1987) and the ‘dynamic’ model of educational effectiveness (Creemersa & Kyriakides, 2010) (see Section 3.9). These system-leaning models identify input, process and outcome factors, and  operate at the different levels of an education system (national, regional and community); as well as school, classroom, home and student level with the ultimate aim of helping practitioners improve the quality of education in classrooms and schools.

This research focuses on identifying the major contributors to learning outcomes and addressing the most influential ones in improve the educational outcomes. The major factors to analyze the effect on children learning outcome are presented below.

The dependent variables of the study are children education outcomes (literacy, numeracy and comprehension)[1] and attitudes, explanatory variables include:

Dependent Variables

Family factors

Parents’/caregivers’ highest education level, occupation, income, and attitude towards education, family size.

Household welfare

Settlement type (IDP, Rural, Urban), access to electricity, water, TV, radios, food security, dietary diversity, livelihood strategies, WASH).

Household welfare is a key factor that determine education outcome; access to electricity creates an opportunity for the child to do home exercise at night, and generate additional source of information such as radio, and TV and exposure to eternal worlds.

Community factors

Access to primary education, health, distance to school, major business people do in the area); security, safety, urban, rural. Children growing up in conflict affect neighbourhood are more likely to be attracted by external factors remain back at home, exposed to drug, and unproductive lifestyle. Peer pressure, negative social norms and the common activities in the area.

School factors

Teaching materials, availability of books, electricity, water, sanitation, toilet, teacher-student relationship. Access to school materials is plays crucial role in improving educational outcomes, which need to be addressed properly and in adequate fashion.

Child related factors

 

Aspiration, age, gender, exposure to external factors, disability, grade, age started school, perceived benefits of education, early educational development, Child role at home (domestic duties, time available for school work: Helping younger siblings, fetching water, herding, father support

 

Operationally, the proposed study will be conducted in two phases: phase one being review of literature and phase two will be primary and secondary data collection and analysis.

3.1   Phase One: Literature Review

This will be meant to exhaustively explore the factors affecting learning across the five levels of education systems with reference to the Somalia case study following the two models proposed in this study. Here sources will include reports and publications by the government, non-governmental organizations and individual researchers. Available systemic reviews on learning outcomes will also be explored in this phase. In cases where materials relating to Somalia are not available, the consultant will refer to other similar crisis-affected contexts. This review of literature will also answer the question of interventions and their effectiveness in learning outcomes in Somalia and other similar contexts.

3.2   Phase Two: Primary and Secondary Data Collection and Analysis

In the second phase the consultant will collect primary qualitative (Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) and Focus Group Discussions) and quantitative data from key stakeholders. The contents of data collection tools in this phase will be informed by findings from Phase One. The KIIs will target persons with considerable knowledge on learning outcomes in the country, these include Ministry of Education (at Somaliland, Puntland, Jubaland, SWT, Hirshabelle, Galmudug and federal levels), staff working with non-governmental actors (local and international) in the education sector (such as SCI, CARE, UNICEF, TASS, SPL, among others) and school teachers. FGDs will target caregivers and school children. The consultant in consultation with SCI will develop exact sampling strategy to reflect coverage of the three operational areas of SCI that is South Central Somalia, Puntland and Somaliland. In this phase also, the consultant will collect and analyse available secondary data on literacy assessments, either nationally or using the project-based datasets. 

 

4.1  Scope of Work

The consultant will carry out the following specific activities for the consultancy.

·         Develop a detailed work plan for the study. 

·         Produce an inception report demonstrating his/her capacity to handle the consultancy by explicitly explaining his/her understanding of the TOR that he/she deems sufficient serve the study purpose.  The inception report should exhaustively cover the proposed design and methodology, analysis plan, suggested final report format among others.

·         Review literature as per the ‘Input-Process-Outcome model’ and the ‘dynamic’ model of educational effectiveness for Phase One of the study

·         Develop KIIs and FGD facilitation guides and quantitative questionnaire for different stakeholders

·         Conduct training of FGD and KII facilitators and enumerators in line with field data collection plan and tools.

·         Based on the proposed and reviewed field plan and with support from SCI REALM, conduct field data collection.

·         Analyze primary data collected in line with the study questions and draft a report accordingly

·         After successfully completion of the report, we expect the consulting firm to draft research article on factors influencing learning outcome publishable in peer reviewed education journals

·         In joint agreement between the consulting firm and SCI, SCI REALM team may take the field operation of the study including enumerators training, data collection, and preliminary data analysis, while the firm will produce research articles to produce profound comprehensive evidence on factors affecting learning outcomes for Children in Somalia.

In terms of the geographic scope of the work, the study will be conducted across Somalia, covering all SCI operational areas where education interventions are being implemented. Specifically, it will be conducted in regions and districts in Puntland, Somaliland, and South-Central Somalia.

 

4.2 Proposed Timeline

The consultant will be expected to complete the assignment in utmost 50 days. The consultant will prepare an implementation plan that will operationalize and direct how the whole exercise will be carried out. The work plan will clearly describe the timing for:

a)     Inception report development including review by SCI

b)    Literature review

c)    Development of FGD and KII guides and questionnaires

d)    Training of data collection team

e)    Data collection

f)     Data analysis and report writing

g)     Review and feedback of report

h)    Presentation of the findings an Education Stakeholder’s Workshop

Expertise of the consultants

The following are minimum requirements for the team/consultant to be considered for carrying out the assignment

a)     Consultant preferred from institutional/ team of experts with background in education and social science.

b)    At least a Master’s Degree in Education or other related Social Sciences. A PhD would be preferred.

c)    At least 5 years’ experience of research on Education especially children’s learning outcomes. SCI-Somalia is interested to verify related assignments conducted in the past 2 years.

d)    Demonstrable experience in working in conflict prone countries such as Somalia.

e)    Demonstrate advanced capacity and proven experience in literature review and quantitative and qualitative data management and analysis

f)     The consultant or co-consultant is expected to speak in Somali. And has no access limitations in moving from region to another.

g)     The consultant is expected to meet the terms and work conditions stipulated in SCI contract including Save the Children child safeguarding policy.

 

4.3 Proposed tools to conduct study

              i.    To measure children learning outcome the study will employ EGRA and EGMA assessment tools.

             ii.    Educational and school mapping tools to assess the education and school system

            iii.    To measure family related indicators food security and income related tools will be developed and employed.

4.4  SCI Somalia Responsibilities

The SCI Somalia will be responsible for the following:

  • Ensure effective coordination of the logistics to support the consultants in undertaking their assignment
  • Review and approve inception report
  • Provide the consultant with SCI internal reports and relevant documents needed for the literature review of the secondary data.
  • Support the consultant with data collection and drafting report
  • Hire vehicles, FGDs and KII facilitators for the consultant
  • Link consultants to relevant stakeholders
  • Reviewing analysis of the data collected including literature review phase
  • Review draft report and provide constructive feedback to the consultant
  • Approve and signoff final report reports

 

4.5  Budget and Payment Schedule

The consultant is expected to provide a detailed budget in US Dollars including consultancy fees. For this consultancy, the payment will be made as follows

Item

Payment %

Inception report and data collection tools have been signed off

30%

Draft report has been signed off, field raw data and presentation of analysis findings

30%

Submission of final report and evaluation signed off

40%

 

4.6  Consultancy Award Criteria

The following award criteria will be used during the evaluation of the proposals: -

Description

Possible Score

Compliance with Consultancy requirement

-          Provision of required information & documents; responsiveness to ToR's

 

10

Consultant Experience

-          Qualifications and general experience of the firm/team

-          Proven specific experience in performing similar assignments especially in Somalia with reputable organizations.

 

25

15

Adequacy of Work Plan & Methodology

-          Methodology and techniques to be applied well stipulated

-          Clear description of tasks in their Scope of Work

 

30

10

Bidder's Price Quotation

10

Total Score

100


 


3.1   Conceptual Model: Input-Process-Output Model

Level

Inputs

Processes

Outputs

Students

Gender, age, grade level, socio-economic status, disability, rural /urban, pastoralist /sedentary   immigration/displacement background, family environment and support, attitudes, skills, openness, problem-solving styles, ECD attendance

Attendance/truancy, completion/ transition to upper grades

Outside-class activities - e.g. participation in co-curricular school programmes

Motivation, engagement in the learning process

Learning and thinking strategies, continuous assessment/ test taking strategies including class and home works.

Learning/ time on task

 

Literacy and numeracy proficiency

Literacy and numeracy-related attitudes, beliefs and motivation

General school-related attitudes and behaviour, e.g. commitment, truancy

Learning motivation, educational expectations

Classrooms

Class size

Socio-economic background

Teacher education/training, expertise

Teaching and learning aids

Quality of instruction:  engagement level of the children, support, challenge

Opportunity to learn: support to slow learners, children with special needs, girls, implemented curriculum, student text book ratio, assigned individual and group tasks, literacy and numeracy-related activities/drills

Instructional time, students and teachers time on task, grouping, assessment and use of feedback to improve instruction

Aggregated student variables

Observable change in increased learning outcomes/ progressive improvement in students’ performance

Schools

Socio-economic background, walking distance, safety and protection measures

Affluence of the community/

School funding, public vs. private

School size

Parental involvement in management and local resource mobilization

Achievement orientation, shared norms, leadership, students’ level of engagement in school management, teacher motivation and commitment and, professional development

Assessment practice/ recording and use of the feedbacks

Admission and recruitment policies, tracking, localization of school curriculum,

Teacher-student relations, supportive environment and supervision

Parent school partnership, risk mitigation mechanism

Aggregated student variables

Promotion/retention and graduation rates

Attendance,

Inclusiveness, ensured children’s well being

countries

(Systems)

Economic wealth, social (in)equality

Diversity policies

Education policies and strategies/ inclusiveness

School funding, tracking and allocation, policies for professional teacher development, support for special needs hiring and certification policies

Accountability and school supervision policies, locus of decision making

Aggregated student variables

Average graduation level

Improved staff retention and productivity

 


1.    References

African Educational Trust. (2012). Report on 2011 Monitoring Learning Achievements (MLA) in Grade 4 in Puntland and Somaliland.

Burde, D., Guven, O., Kelcey, J., Lahmann, H., & Al-Abbadi, K. (2015). What Works to Promote Children’s Educational Access, Quality of Learning, and Wellbeing in Crisis-Affected Contexts. Education Rigorous Literature Review. Department for International Development. Retrieved from https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/57a0897ee5274a31e00000e0/61127-Education-in-Emergencies-Rigorous-Review_FINAL_2015_10_26.pdf

Cervantes-Duarte, L., & Fernández-Cano, A. (2016). Impact of Armed Conflicts on Education and Educational Agents: A Multivocal Review. Revista Electrónica Educare, 20(3), 1-24. Retrieved from https://www.scielo.sa.cr/pdf/ree/v20n3/1409-4258-ree-20-03-00238.pdf

Creemersa, B., & Kyriakides, L. (2010). Using the Dynamic Model to develop an evidence-based and theory-driven approach to school improvement. Irish Educational Studies, 20(1), 5-23. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03323310903522669

Dowd, A. J., & Pisani, L. (2013). Two Wheels are Better than One: The Importance of Capturing the Home Literacy Environment in Large-Scale Assessments of Reading. Research in Comparative and International Education, 8(3), 359 - 372. doi:https://doi.org/10.2304/rcie.2013.8.3.359

Hussein, A. S. (2015). Educational Challenges in Post-Transitional Somalia Education: Case Study Mogadishu. Mogadishu, Somalia: Heritage Institute for Policy Studies. Retrieved from http://www.heritageinstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Educational-challenges-in-post-transitional-Somalia_ENG.pdf

Ministry of Human Development and Public Services & UNICEF. (2013). Go2School Initiative (20132016): Educating for Resilience. Joint Strategy Document, Somalia Federal Republic, Mogadishu. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/somalia/SOM_resources_gotoschool.pdf

Protopapas, A., Sideridis, G. D., Mouzaki, A., & Simos, P. G. (2011). Matthew Effects in Reading Comprehension: Myth or Reality? Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(5), 402-420. doi:https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219411417568

Purves, A. C. (1987). The Evolution of the IEA: A Memoir. Comparative Education Review, 31(1), 10-28. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/1188220

Ratcliffe, M., Perry, C., Boak, E., Smith, H., & Todd, M. (2009). Study on Governance Challenges for Education in Fragile Situations: Study Synthesis Report. Euro-Trends. Retrieved from http://s3.amazonaws.com/inee-assets/resources/Education_and_Fragility_Synthesis_Report.pdf

Senechal, M. (2006). Testing the Home Literacy Model: Parent Involvement in Kindergarten Is Differentially Related to Grade 4 Reading Comprehension, Fluency, Spelling, and Reading for Pleasure. Scientific Studies of Reading, 10(1), 59-87. doi:10.1207/s1532799xssr1001_4

Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Luo, R., McFadden, K. E., Bandel, E. T., & Vallotton, C. (2017). Early home learning environment predicts children’s 5th grade academic skills. Applied Developmental Science,, 1-17. doi:10.1080/10888691.2017.1345634

Terlitsky, A. B., & Wilkins, J. (2015). Characteristics of family literacy programmes that improve child literacy, behaviour and parenting skills. International Journal of Pedagogies and Learning, 10(2), 121-138. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/22040552.2015.1113846

UNDP. (2012). Somalia Human Development Report 2012: Empowering Youth for Peace and Development. United Nations Development Programme Somalia, Nairobi. Retrieved from http://www.undp.org/content/dam/undp/library/corporate/HDR/Arab%20States/HDR-Somalia-2012-E.pdf?download

UNICEF. (2018). UNICEF Somalia Education Strategy Note 2018-2020. UNICEF. Retrieved from http://files.unicef.org/transparency/documents/Somalia%204.%20Education.pdf

Weigel, D. J., Martin, S. S., & Bennett, K. K. (2006). Contributions of the home literacy environment to preschoolaged children’s emerging literacy and language skills. Early Child Development and Care, 176(3-4), 357-378. doi:10.1080/03004430500063747

Winthrop, R., & Matsui, E. (2013). A New Agenda for Education in Fragile States. Working Paper 10, Brookings, Center for Universal Education. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/08-education-agenda-fragile-states-winthrop.pdf

 

Publish date: 2020-12-07 01:23:38
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