Inclusion of the Most Vulnerable People in Resilience Programming

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World Vision

World Vision is an international Christian Relief and Development organization, whose goal is to achieve long-lasting benefits in the quality of life for vulnerable children and their families, displaced persons and communities. www.wvi.org 


Job Details
Employer: World Vision
Job Title: Inclusion of the Most Vulnerable People in Resilience Programming
Job Type: Full-Time
Location: Somalia
Category: Other
Description:

Terms of Reference

For

Inclusion of the Most Vulnerable People in Resilience Programming

Compiled by

SomReP and STREAM Consortia

Somalia

25 February, 2019

Table of Contents

1.0 Program Background. 1

1.1. Research Context. 2

2.0 Objective of the study and Research Questions. 3

2.1. Specific objectives of the study. 3

2.2. Key Questions and Areas of Inquiry. 3

2.3. Key focus of the assessment. 4

3.0 Methodology. 4

3.1 Data Collection. 4

3.2 Study Areas. 5

4.0 Management of the Consultancy and Reporting. 5

5.0 Authority and Responsibility. 6

5.1. The Consortia. 6

5.2. The Consultant. 6

6.0 Logistics. 6

7.0 Proposal Content. 7

8.0 The desired profile of the baseline external consultant. 7

1.0 Program Background

Since the devastating drought in 2011 in Somalia, several consortia (i.e. Somali Resilience Programme[1] (SomReP), Somalia Resilience Action Consortium[2] (STREAM), and Building Resilience Communities in Somalia[3] (BRCiS)) were established to enhance the resilience of vulnerable households and communities against cyclical shocks and stressors as well as to be able to better secure households’ needs year after year. The aim of the consortia is collectively to help protect livelihoods against continuing shocks by contributing to improved resilience for communities and households. Consortia target interventions that aim to build adaptive, absorptive, and transformation capacities toward achieving improvements in economic wellbeing, hence improving their resilience to cyclic shocks. Furthermore, consortia advocate for the importance of resilience building at the household and community level within the broader agenda of moving Somalia towards peace and development.

The main target group of the interventions are pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, and peri-urban poor which include the internally displaced people (IDPs). These IDPs face peculiar livelihood vulnerability given their high propensity to be internally displaced households, female-headed households, or youth with few employment prospects.

To achieve these objectives, consortia support resilience through:

  1. Livelihoods & food security: HHs in targeted communities have improved access to productive livelihoods for enhanced food access and diversity;

  2. Social Safety Nets: HHs in target communities have their livelihoods and assets protected during shocks and stressors through the establishment and strengthening of social safety nets, including the use of crisis modifier mechanisms such as Savings Group Schemes;

  3. Natural resource management: Eco–system health improved through promotion of equitable and sustainable natural resource management;

  4. Local governance capacity building: communities, civil society and local institutions are better equipped with resilience strategies and response capacities to cope with recurrent shocks and stressors.

Understanding that the success of consortia’s resilience programs is somehow very much dependent on the consortia’s ability to reach out to the most vulnerable individuals, households and communities and clans, the consortia have commissioned this inclusivity study with the purpose of understanding the level of participation of most vulnerable people in resilience programming and interventions and investigating the underlying factors that stop or inhibit participation of the most marginalized or vulnerable groups. The study will be jointly funded by SomReP and STREAM and will technically benefit from the rich knowledge and expertise of all the three consortia. SomReP will be the lead and will coordinate the entire process and ensure that there is maximum participation of all consortia members.

1.1. Research Context

Supporting the ability of the most vulnerable women and girls, lesser-clans, people with disabilities, landless farmers, single-headed household to succeed and advance economically leads to healthy and productive households, resilience and the well-being of communities. Despite the consortia putting in mechanisms to ensure that most vulnerable households and communities are targeted, vulnerable people continue to be excluded and continue to face significant barriers to achieving their full potential. Disadvantages in political, social and economic relationships perpetuate inequalities. In the fragile and emergency contexts, the most vulnerable (women and girls, lesser-clans, people with disabilities, landless farmers, single-headed households) face a higher risk of discrimination. Many microfinance institutions (MFIs) for example avoid clients with disabilities (Groce[4] et al., 2011, p. 1505; Leymat[5], 2012, p. 28), often due to perceived and incorrect assumptions that people with disabilities will be unable to pay back the money borrowed (Mont[6], 2014, p. 33). Young people with disabilities find it particularly hard to get apprenticeships or training (Groce & Kett[7], 2014, pp. 7-8). UNISDR[8] (2014) and Smith[9] et al. (2012) point out that people with disabilities are often excluded from disaster management and risk reduction processes, and are disproportionately affected by conflicts and disasters. Humanitarian response is often inaccessible (UNISDR, 2014, p. 4; Mitchell[10] & Karr, 2014). Approaches therefore that systematically and visibly reduce vulnerability gaps and ensure that vulnerable people are given the tools, resources, and opportunities to lead and participate are critical to the success of resilience programing in the fragile context.

Functioning institutions of good governance and accountability are equally essential in enhancing inclusive participation and ability to address and reduce risk. This requires institutions and processes that are transparent, accountable, and responsive to the people and that promote positive society relationships (including a strong VDCs, EWC, producers groups, NRM/ water committees, VSLAs, and VRC). Any approach that seeks to build resilience should be informed by society dynamics, as humanitarian needs may be great in areas emerging from disaster or still fragile. Programming that promotes holistic inclusion, and strengthens community institutions, plays an important role in contributing to the adaptive, absorptive and transformative programing.

2.0 Objective of the study and Research Questions

The main objective of the study is to investigate the extent to which most vulnerable people are targeted and included in the programme and understand the underlying factors that hinder or foster inclusion or participation of the most vulnerable people in the programme.

2.1. Specific objectives of the study

  1. To explore whether or not resilience interventions implemented by consortia (SomReP, STREAM, and BRCiS) are reaching the most vulnerable Somali communities and households.

  2. To assess the extent to which vulnerable communities and households participate in the programme cycle (i.e. from needs identification, planning and design, implementation, to monitoring and evaluation)

  3. To assess the effectiveness of government and community (formal and informal) institutions in promoting inclusive participation and decision making of the most vulnerable households.

  4. To assess the effectiveness of community engagement processes including formal and informal agreements in ensuring that the most vulnerable are reached?

  5. To assess the selection process of these institutions in ensuring the most vulnerable are included.

  6. To assess the effectiveness of the targeting strategies employed by different consortia partners to ensure the most vulnerable are included in and derive sufficient benefit from Consortia activities, particularly noting potential bias in selection of HHs for participation.

  7. To better understand the barriers affecting participation of the most vulnerable people in resilience programing, labour market and high rewarding enterprises.

  8. To provide recommendations for future research and program intervention strategies to improve the resilience of households

2.2. Key Questions and Areas of Inquiry

· To what extent are the most vulnerable households including people with disabilities, minority communities, single mothers and orphans reached by programme interventions (e.g. social safety nets[11], livelihood and food security, natural resource management, and local governance capacity building)?

· To what extent do most vulnerable communities and households participate in different phases of the project cycle (i.e. needs identification, planning and design, implementation, to monitoring and evaluation)?

· To what extent do most vulnerable communities and households participate in labour market and high rewarding enterprises?

· How effective are the government and community (formal and informal) institutions in promoting inclusive participation of the most vulnerable people in the programme interventions?

ü Community institutions could include: traditional leadership structure, self-organized established governance structures and community structures e.g. VRC, VDCs and EWCs, VSLAs, among others)

· How effective are the community engagement processes including formal and informal agreements in ensuring that the most vulnerable are reached?

ü Community awareness, stakeholder mapping and engagement, MoUs and other informal agreements?

· How effective are program targeting approaches in ensuring that the most vulnerable are reached

ü Community (group) based targeting, household or individual targeting, self- selection targeting, and mixed targeting among others

· What are the underlying factors that inhibit and foster inclusion and participation of the most vulnerable households in the programme intervention?

· What are the other underlying factors that inhibit participation of the most vulnerable people in labour market and other rewarding enterprises

2.3. Key focus of the assessment

This study will explore collaborative change process that addresses systemic barriers affecting large numbers of vulnerable households in resilience programing, while focusing on effectiveness of the community institutions in promoting inclusive decision making of the most vulnerable households and tapping into new opportunities. Priority areas of learning include Village development Committees (VDCs), Early Warning and Early Action Committee (EWC), producers’ groups’ formation, Natural Resource Management (NRM), Village Savings and Loan Association (VSLA), and Village Relief Committees (VRF).

3.0 Methodology

The consultant is expected to develop a detailed research methodology based on their understanding of the terms of reference. The final research methodology shall be agreed upon between the consultant and the Consortia partners.

3.1 Data Collection

The study will be predominantly qualitative in nature. While the onus to choose the study design and data collection methodologies is left to the consultant, the consortia strongly recommend that both secondary and primary data should be collected. Secondary data should be collected through literature review of key beneficiary demographic data[12] and consortia’s targeting tools, processes and guidelines. This will be necessary for the consultant to establish if the targeting tools, processes and guidelines have deliberate mechanisms in place to ensure that most vulnerable people including people with disabilities are included in the programme.

Primary data should be collected through key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The consultant will conduct key informant interviews with M and E staff and some selected project staff and government staff to understand the targeting processes and tools used to select beneficiaries into the programme and to map out the barriers that prevent most vulnerable households from participating in the programme. In addition, the consultant is expected to conduct key informant interviews with influential leaders in the communities to understand the targeting process at community level, collect information on typology of vulnerabilities in the communities, and establish the underlying factors that inhibit or foster inclusion and participation of the most vulnerable people in the programme. To triangulate information collected through key informant interviews with influential leaders, the consultant is also expected to conduct focus group discussions with community members (project participants and non-project participants) which shall include the venerable groups (i.e. people with disabilities, minority communities, single mothers and orphans). The number of groups and individuals to be sampled shall be determined by the golden rule of data saturation[13].

The consultant is at liberty to propose additional or new data collection methods based on their understanding of the assignment. However the final methods have to be agreed upon between the consultant and Consortia.

3.2 Study Areas

The study will be implemented in four districts (four SomReP districts and two STREAM districts) which include Afgoye (10,612 households), Baidoa (12,897 households), Kasmayo (2000 households), Afmadhow/dhobley (3000 households), Dollow (1,088 households) and Belethaya (2,830 households).

4.0 Management of the Consultancy and Reporting

The consultants to undertake the assignment will report directly to the M&E Manager for SomReP who will in return report to consortia to make sure compliance with the intended goals. Regular consultation meetings will be arranged between the consortia technical unit (TU) and the consultant as need arises.

5.0 Authority and Responsibility

5.1. The Consortia

· Provide the selected consultant with necessary documents to enable a clear reporting and understanding of the Consortia program.

· Create linkages with field staff, Implementing Partners and other stakeholders to ensure effective accomplishment of consultant research study.

· Review report and provide feedback to the consultant to ensure consistency with Consortia implementation objective.

· Arrange key informant interviews and focus-group discussions as per the evaluation methodology.

· Liaise with local implementing partners on behalf of the consultant to plan data collection

· Provide necessary orientation and training to the consultant.

· Review and approve field approaches to be used by the consultant.

· Review the draft report and provide feedback to the consultant.

5.2. The Consultant

· Provide summary fact sheet highlighting key findings

· Develop assessment plan, methodology and appropriate/relevant data collection tools.

· Work closely with consortia M&E reps through SomRep M&E Manager and project staff during the design of the methodology/ tools; agree on the tools that will be used.

· Incorporate feedback into tools and reports which will be given from the team.

· Train enumerators, guide and supervise enumerators during data collection in the field.

· Make visits to data collection site and do Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs).

· Compile a comprehensive draft report for the assignment covering both the document review and primary research with compelling recommendations.

· Do de-briefing on preliminary findings to the field team soon after data collection Report writing. The result is expected to be shared with the stakeholders and the consultant needs to give due attention for the quality of the report.

6.0 Logistics

WV will facilitate any travel logistics including, access to operational area, flights and accommodation for SomRep sites. The consultant with take care of their on travel in whilst undertaking the study in STREAM sites

7.0 Proposal Content

Proposals from Consultants should include the following information (at a minimum)

· Technical Proposal with clear methodology, including types of data collection tools and analysis

· CV of key consultant(s) attached to the technical proposal

· Proposed budget

· Proposed timeline

· Two samples of past similar evaluations;

· Two referees for programme evaluation work completed in the last year

8.0 The desired profile of the baseline external consultant

· In-depth knowledge of Somalia and its regions including government and community level service delivery structures

· Minimum Master’s Degree in social sciences, economic development, rural development and agriculture studies or related subjects and, experience in resilience. PHD is an added advantage.

· Three or more similar evaluation exercises with European Union funded development programmes (or previous solid experience of evaluating complex integrated resilience programmes fragile humanitarian contexts.)

· Has technically sound experiences in Qualitative Assessments and Evaluation Studies in Somalia context

· Has extensive experiences in livelihood programmes with previous experience in implementing food security and rural livelihoods programmes in humanitarian and conflict contexts especially in the HORN of Africa, Somalia is added advantage. Strong written, communication, and interpersonal skills in English, with substantial experience in training and managing teams

· Prior experience working in Somalia and relationships with Somali-speaking field data collection supervisors will be an added advantage.

The Consultant may apply as individual or as a team of competent consultants clearly stating the responsibilities of each member of the team.

Applications from qualified firms/individuals should be submitted by 31st March tosomo_supplychain@wvi.org

Email title should be; ASSESSMENT OF VULNERABILITY AND INCLUSION STUDY

[1] SomReP is made up of seven NGOs namely Action Contre la Faim (ACF), Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA), CARE, Cooperazione Internazionale (COOPI), Danish Refugee Council (DRC), Oxfam, World Vision (WV).

[2] STREAM is made up of three NGOs namely, ACTED, SADO, and ADESO.

[3] BRCiS is made up of five NGOs namely, Cooperazione e Suiluppo (CESVI), Concern Worldwide (CWW), The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC), The International Rescue Committee (IRC), and Save the Children International (SCI).

[4] Groce, N., Kett, M., Lang, R. & Trani, J-F. (2011) Disability and Poverty: the need for a more nuanced understanding of implications for development policy and practice. Third World Quarterly, 32(8), 1493-1513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2011.604520

[5] Leymat, A. (2012). Inclusive microfinance: Reaching disabled people through partnership development. Enterprise Development and Microfinance, 23:1, 25-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.3362/1755-1986.2012.004

[6] Mont, D. (2014). Employment policy approaches and multisectoral implementation in low-and middle-income countries. In J. Heymann, M .A. Stein, & G. Moreno (Eds). Disability and equality at work. New York: Oxford University Press.

[7] Groce, N. & Kett, M. (2014). Youth with disabilities (Working Paper Series: No. 23). London: Leonard Cheshire Disability and Inclusive Development Centre. https://www.ucl.ac.uk/lc-ccr/centrepublications/workingpapers/WP23_Youth...

[8] UNISDR. (2014). Living with disability and disasters: UNISDR 2013 survey on living with disabilities and disasters – Key findings. UNISDR. http://www.unisdr.org/2014/iddr/documents/2013DisabilitySurveryReport_03...

[9] Smith, F., Jolley, E. & Schmidt, E. (2012). Disability and disasters: The importance of an inclusive approach to vulnerability and social capital. The World We Want. https://www.worldwewant2015.org/node/287097

[10] Mitchell, D. & Karr, V. (Eds.). (2014). Crises, conflict and disability: Ensuring equality. New York: Routledge.

[11] Village Savings and Loan Associations, Cash For Work, Unconditional Cash Transfers, Food for Work, Unconditional Food Distribution,

[12] The focus will be on the demographic data to understand the extent to which most vulnerable households are included in the programme.

[13] Data saturation was reached (i.e. till no new data seemed to be emerging)

HOW TO APPLY:

Applications from qualified firms/individuals should submit Financial and Technical proposal by 31st March to somo_supplychain@wvi.org

Email title should be; ASSESSMENT OF VULNERABILITY AND INCLUSION STUDY

Publish date: 2019-03-07 14:43:38
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